It is impossible to weave a concise and meaningful summary of the state of Native America at the new millennium without losing a sense of the cultural richness and diversity that characterizes Indian Country. The experiences, concerns, problems, and successes of tribes and individuals are as varied as the American Indian and Alaska Native peoples themselves. While there is tremendous heterogeneity among tribes in their aggressiveness in asserting sovereignty, their ability to sustain economies, their experimentation with social programs, and their responses to cultural evolution, there is a common pattern of interrelationship among these domains of tribal activity. This publication elaborates on the frontiers of tribal challenges and how initiatives in one domain depend upon and support initiatives in other realms of activity. Broadly speaking, Indians are coping with four major challenges: nation building, cultural and demographic change, broken societies, and creating civil societies.