One objection of moving towards a more candidate-oriented electoral system in the Netherlands is the assumption that this could have a negative effect upon gender and ethnic diversity in parliament. What evidence is there for this expectation? And, if so, what else could be done to overcome this problem? To consider these issues, Part I introduces the argument and Part II in this paper compares the current representation of women and minorities in the Netherlands against the record in other countries worldwide. Part III considers the evidence for the impact of electoral systems on the representation of women and minorities. Part IV examines the policy of statutory quotas regulating the candidate selection process for all parties. Part V evaluates the role of reserved seats in legislatures. Part VI discusses voluntary quotas implemented by particular parties. The conclusion in Part VII summarizes the main findings and the arguments surrounding electoral reform in the Netherlands.