Drawing from the two major systematic studies commissioned by Congress to assess the HOPE VI program, this article examines the evidence to date on the impact of relocation on public housing residents and the barriers many face in making successful housing transitions. The findings thus far are mixed, with some former residents clearly better off, others experiencing substantial hardship, and still others at risk for not being able to make a successful transition out of public housing. Most of those who relocated are living in better housing in safer neighborhoods. However, these new neighborhoods are still extremely poor and racially segregated, and residents continue to report significant problems with crime and drug trafficking. Many of those who relocated using vouchers say they have struggled to find and keep housing in the private market. Only a few residents have been able to move to the new mixed-income housing on the HOPE VI sites, while about half have moved to other public housing developments. This article is of particular interest to policy-makers and local housing officials who are concerned with the concentration of low-income households in public housing and how HOPE VI is working to address the issue.