March 3, 2006
Publication:
Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation, Harvard Kennedy School

We invite you to download (below) nine case studies examining service delivery in Indonesia, covering a spectrum of sectors and geographic locations. These cases are being developed and published by a partnership between the World Bank Jakarta Office and the Ash Institute of Democratic Governance and Innovation at the Kennedy School of Government in collaboration with the Ford International Innovations Liaison Group.

Methodology

The cases were researched onsite in early 2005 by multi-disciplinary teams employing a variety of qualitative research methods. Their data, findings, and analysis, were then developed into written case studies. We trust that this combination of methodological rigor with reporting and analysis provides policy makers and practitioners interested in new understanding of what works (and what doesn't necessarily work) in current best practice in local service delivery, with emphasis on understanding pro-poor services.

Making Services Work for the Poor: A Synthesis of Nine Case Studies from Indonesia

The nine Making Services Work for the Poor case studies synthesized in this paper reviewed innovations in service delivery at the local level in Indonesia in the wake of decentralization. It is hoped that this synthesis will be useful to donors and government in and other countries interested in practical ideas for improving local service delivery.

Educational Performance in Tanah Datar, Sumatra

In the Tanah Datar District of West Sumatra, Indonesia, two innovative education policies are examined: the Stronger Incentives Policy, which rewarded best-performing English teachers and headmasters with training and study visits overseas, and the Smaller Classes Policy, which limited class size in senior high schools to 30 students. A number of outcomes were identified, including changes in behaviors and expectations among English teachers and headmasters and increased student interest. However, improvements were not uniform across types of schools; this is also examined in the case study.

Creating Learning Communities for Children Program (CLCC) in Polman District, South Sulawesi

Creating Learning Communities for Children (CLCC) is a training package that focuses on school-based management, community participation, and joyful/active learning. This study traces its implementation in two schools in Polewali district in South Sumatra, since its introduction in 2001. The results indicate that CLCC had a lasting impact on improved learning practices in the school. However, no impact on test scores could be identified, parental involvement increased little, and most school committees continued to focus largely on revenue collection.

Vouchers for Midwife Services in Kabupaten Pemalang, Central Java

Pemalang District is one of ten districts where Targeted Performance Contracting for Midwifes (TPC) was implemented for the Safe Motherhood Project. The project increased utilization of maternal health care services, increased equity to access to maternal health care services, and increased access to clientele for new midwives.

 
 
Lumajang District is one district where the government's Water and Sanitation for Low Income Communities (WSLIC-2) project has been implemented. The project began in 2001, and now covers 23 communities. WSLIC-2 is an initiative that helps poor communities gain access to a safe water supplies and high-quality sanitation services, thereby reducing the incidence of water-borne diseases. Community participation through the use of local facilitators, community construction, and maintenance of water facilities has resulted in measurable improvements in citizens' health and access to clean water, as well as positive changes in citizen and health provider behavior regarding disease prevention.
 
 
In 2003, Prof. Dr. Drg. I Gede Winasa, the Bupati of Jembrana, Bali, implemented the first-ever fee-for-service health insurance system (for health service providers) in Indonesia. The project's aim was to increase access to health services for the poor and to improve the quality of health care overall. By March of 2005, almost all citizens have signed up for the service.
 
 
BIGS is a watchdog NGO in Bandung City, and has become well known for aggressively researching and disseminating budget data for the local government. Since BIGS began focusing on budget transparency in 2002, it has promoted greater government accountability by making citizens more aware of how government allocates and spends money. This has resulted not only in greater public awareness of government spending priorities, but elimination of budgetary allocations to some sectors that are viewed as "easily corruptible."
 
 
This study evaluates the impact of the block grant program implemented in Blitar City since 2002. A community block grant program allocates a portion of the city government's budget for small projects that are disbursed directly to communities. The program was designed to increase public participation and self-management at the local level, as well as to serve as a vehicle for local officials and communities to exercise their autonomy. The block grant program initially addressed communities' immediate needs, mostly for small-scale infrastructure improvements. In the longer term, this program has the potential to empower communities to participate systematically in both the design and implementation of more effective development programs.
 
 
Boalemo was one of the new districts created in 1999 as a result of Indonesia's decentralization policy, after which a number of districts were sub-divided. This study analyzes how the local government has improved local governance by creating improved accountability systems for civil servants through more rigorous application of rewards and sanctions, and use of enhanced mechanisms for promoting transparency.
 
 
Maros District is one of 36 districts where the United States Agency for International Development implemented their PERFORM project to promote good governance and participatory planning. A locally constituted umbrella group of NGOs (Forum Warga) worked with PERFORM staff to advocate for the first-ever law mandating citizen participation in district planning and project decisions, passed in 2003. Since then, PERFORM staff and Forum Warga members have facilitated citizen-driven planning in about 20% of the District's villages.
 
Contact information:
 
For inquiries regarding these case studies, please write us at: indonesian_innovations@ksg.harvard.edu
 
For inquiries related to the World Bank - Indonesia, please contact Stefan Nachuk at: snachuk@worldbank.org
 
For inquiries related to the Ash Institute for Democratic Governance, please contact Winthrop Carty at: winthrop_carty@harvard.edu
 
For inquiries related to the Ford International Innovations Liaison Group, please contact Peter Spink at: spink@fgvsp.br